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¿Ya conocen Taxco?

La palabra Taxco proviene del vocablo náhualt “Tlachco”, cuyo significado es “Juego de Pelota”. Se designaba con este nombre a lo que hoy es Taxco el Viejo, a 10 kilometros del Taxco actual. La región fue habitada por los tlahuicas. Los aztecas la habían invadido desde los tiempos de Izcóatl pero fue hasta 1445 que fue designado un gobernador por el imperio Azteca y ahí se asentó la cabecera de una de las 7 provincias tributarias, que los mexicas establecieron en el actual territorio estatal.

Después de la conquista, comenzaron a divulgarse las leyendas de los ricos minerales de los alrededores de Taxco. La primera referencia histórica se encuentra en la cuarta carte de Relación de Hernán Cortés a Carlos V, que data del 5 de octubre de 1524. Esta carta informaba que por necesitar estaño para su artillería, había enviado exploradores a las zonas donde se decía había dicho metal y uno de esos lugares era Taxco, donde encontrarón un rico yaciemiento de estaño que llamaron “El Socavón del Rey” y que está en lo que hoy es el cerro de Bermeja.

El Taxco actual está asentado en el lugar que se conocía como Tetelcingo, que quiere decir en náhuatl “Cerro Pequeño”.   Ahí residía un gobernador designado por el imperio Azteca y ahí se asentó la cabecera de una de las 7 provincias tributarias, que los mexicas establecieron en el actual territorio estatal; según el códice Mendocino pagaba con miel de abeja, jícaras, incienso, vestigios militares y tilmas labradas.

En el siglo XVIII se formó la organización política de la Nueva España y las alcaldías mayores se convirtieron en partidos bajo el sistema administrativo llamado de intendencias, de tal manera que el partido de Taxco pasó a depender de la intendencia de México. Había un agente administrativo que tenía la categoría de subdelegado.

En este siglo, Don José de la Borda, de origen francés y radicado en Taxco, mandó construir la Catedral de Santa Prisca como una forma de agradecer a Dios la fortuna que había logrado con la explotación de la plata. Durante una crisis económica De la Borda vendió el templo a la Catedral Metropolitana.

La catedral de Santa Prisca se empezó a construir en 1748 y se concluyó el 3 de septiembre de 1758. Fue consagrado el 11 y 12 de mayo de 1759 por don Manuel Antonio Rojo de Lubián y Vieyra, delegado del arzobispo de México. Se tiene conocimiento de que el artífice de esta magna obra arquitectónica fue don Cayetano de Zigüenza.

Durante la Guerra de Independencia Taxco fue testigo de importantes actos, entre los que destaca la redacción del Plan de Iguala, en el convento de San Agustín de Iturbide y que tuvo como resultado la unión de las fuerzas realistas de Iturbide y los insurgentes, a cargo de don Vicente Guerrero.

En 1850 fue construido legalmente como municipio, siendo uno de los 38 municipios que integraron al estado de Guerrero, cuando éste fue creado.

Dando un nuevo impulso a la producción de artículos de platería, el norteamericano William Spratling instaló su primer taller en 1937, convirtiendo a Taxco en un importante destino del turismo nacional y extranjero que daría nueva vida a la ciudad. William Spratling, revitalizó Taxco mediante la creación de la industria de la platería y el trabajo de hojalata.

Spratling vivió en esta ciudad desde 1929, ahí comenzó su labor con un grupo de plateros de Iguala, con quienes formó su primer taller en 1931; hacia 1953, William fue distinguido como hijo predilecto de la ciudad. Fue caricaturista, aviador, escritor y horticultor; una de las calles de Taxco fue bautizada con su nombre.

Taxco fue declarada Zona de Monumentos Históricos en 1990.

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